Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative neurological condition, whose incidence seems to be rising. A 2015 study from Norway found that the incidence had increased 10-fold over a 40-year time period, and currently affects around 200 in every 100,000 people [1]. Multiple sclerosis affects the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibres. Myelin acts as in insulator, with neural signals ‘jumping’ insulated areas, thus allowing the signal to pass more rapidly along nerve fibres. When myelin is destroyed by Multiple sclerosis, signals pass much more slowly.

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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a blood disorder that is characterized by the production of antibodies by the immune system of the body which attack and destroy red blood cells in the bloodstream.1

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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a blood disorder where red blood cells in the bloodstream are damaged by antibodies (proteins) produced by the immune system of the body.

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Pancreatic cancer occurs when malignant cells start to develop in the tissue of the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ in the body which is responsible for the production of insulin, used to control glucose levels in the blood stream, and digestive enzymes which are released into the small intestine. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth highest cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States.

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Autoimmune diseases occur when the body’s defense mechanism mistakenly produces antibodies against some part of the body itself.  For most of us, for most of the time, antibodies are helpful. They are usually produced in response to foreign material (such as bacteria or viruses), allowing the body to quickly recognize the problem, and activate defense mechanisms. When antibodies are mistakenly produced against something that is part of our body, those same defense mechanisms are again activated, but this time our own body is attacked. A wide variety of diseases can result, including arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease.

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Rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder is a condition that is associated with affected individuals experiencing vivid, and often frightening, dreams as well as performing certain motor behaviors and making vocal noises during the REM phase of sleep. REM sleep makes up about 20 percent of the total sleeping cycle, occurring at the second half of the night, and it occurs many times during sleep time.1

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Liver transplantation is a procedure where a diseased liver is replaced by a healthy one from another person. The donor can be deceased, but nowadays living donor transplants are done where part of the liver from a living person is donated to a patient with liver pathology. A liver transplantation is performed in cases where patients have sustained acute liver failure or who have end-stage liver disease. Around 30 million Americans are diagnosed with some form of liver disease, and each year over 20,000 new cases of primary liver cancer are diagnosed.

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Dysarthria is difficulty in producing intelligible speech due to problems in the muscular control of speech-producing organs (such as the face, mouth, voice-box (larynx) and chest muscles).  This can be due to damage to either the peripheral nerves, or the brain itself. Lots of things can cause the problem, including Parkinson’s disease (PD).

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a condition where the muscular layer of the heart, called the myocardium, becomes abnormally thickened (hypertrophied). This thickened myocardium makes it more difficult for the heart to effectively pump blood throughout the body. Many people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often have this condition without experiencing any signs and symptoms of the disease. In those who do experience issues, the signs and symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pains, and abnormal heart rhythms due to the electrical conduction system of the heart being affected.

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People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are frequently obese. Type 2 diabetes mellitus works together with obesity to enhance insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a condition whereby the target organs fail to respond to insulin being produced by the pancreas. Dropping the extra pounds improves insulin sensitivity and the blood sugar levels and reduces the risk of complications in diabetics. Having that said, if you are a diabetic, managing obesity can be challenging. This is because some anti-diabetic medications can end up causing more weight gain. Besides, medications that treat both diabetes and obesity are limited. Fortunately, surgical procedures, collectively termed as bariatric surgeries are available today and can be considered as the most effective treatment for diabetic individuals who are obese.

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