Pancreatic cancer occurs when malignant cells start to develop in the tissue of the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ in the body which is responsible for the production of insulin, used to control glucose levels in the blood stream, and digestive enzymes which are released into the small intestine. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth highest cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States.

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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children


Autoimmune diseases occur when the body’s defense mechanism mistakenly produces antibodies against some part of the body itself.  For most of us, for most of the time, antibodies are helpful. They are usually produced in response to foreign material (such as bacteria or viruses), allowing the body to quickly recognize the problem, and activate defense mechanisms. When antibodies are mistakenly produced against something that is part of our body, those same defense mechanisms are again activated, but this time our own body is attacked. A wide variety of diseases can result, including arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease.

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What is REM sleep behavior disorder?


Rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder is a condition that is associated with affected individuals experiencing vivid, and often frightening, dreams as well as performing certain motor behaviors and making vocal noises during the REM phase of sleep. REM sleep makes up about 20 percent of the total sleeping cycle, occurring at the second half of the night, and it occurs many times during sleep time.1

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Liver transplantation is a procedure where a diseased liver is replaced by a healthy one from another person. The donor can be deceased, but nowadays living donor transplants are done where part of the liver from a living person is donated to a patient with liver pathology. A liver transplantation is performed in cases where patients have sustained acute liver failure or who have end-stage liver disease. Around 30 million Americans are diagnosed with some form of liver disease, and each year over 20,000 new cases of primary liver cancer are diagnosed.

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Parkinson's Disease and Dysarthria


Dysarthria is difficulty in producing intelligible speech due to problems in the muscular control of speech-producing organs (such as the face, mouth, voice-box (larynx) and chest muscles).  This can be due to damage to either the peripheral nerves, or the brain itself. Lots of things can cause the problem, including Parkinson’s disease (PD).

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a condition where the muscular layer of the heart, called the myocardium, becomes abnormally thickened (hypertrophied). This thickened myocardium makes it more difficult for the heart to effectively pump blood throughout the body. Many people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often have this condition without experiencing any signs and symptoms of the disease. In those who do experience issues, the signs and symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pains, and abnormal heart rhythms due to the electrical conduction system of the heart being affected.

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People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are frequently obese. Type 2 diabetes mellitus works together with obesity to enhance insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a condition whereby the target organs fail to respond to insulin being produced by the pancreas. Dropping the extra pounds improves insulin sensitivity and the blood sugar levels and reduces the risk of complications in diabetics. Having that said, if you are a diabetic, managing obesity can be challenging. This is because some anti-diabetic medications can end up causing more weight gain. Besides, medications that treat both diabetes and obesity are limited. Fortunately, surgical procedures, collectively termed as bariatric surgeries are available today and can be considered as the most effective treatment for diabetic individuals who are obese.

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Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia


An autoimmune disease is one where antibodies are produced which attack an element of our own body. Antibodies are the molecules produced by our immune system which are designed to recognize and destroy ‘foreign’ material. For example, we normally make antibodies to recognize bacteria or viruses, a crucial step in allowing our immune system to identify and destroy the disease. However, if the body ‘incorrectly’ makes antibodies against cells or molecules which belong to us then that part of the body is attacked, leading to an auto-immune disease.  More well-known autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease. However, auto-immune diseases can also attack the skin, the thyroid gland and even the blood cells. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occur when the body produces antibodies which recognize our own red blood cells. These antibodies then attach to the red blood cells and ‘burst’ (or hemolyse) them. As the body cannot keep up with the rate of destruction of red blood cells, the patient becomes anemic – and may suffer with symptoms including shortness of breath, fatigue and fainting. In the most severe cases, there may not be sufficient red cells to transport oxygen to the tissues and the person becomes critically unwell.

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Best hospitals for Spinal Surgery


Spinal surgery is a treatment option available for patients suffering from spine-related conditions. These may include degenerative spinal disorders, spinal fractures and deformities, disk diseases of the lower back and neck, spinal cord injuries, spinal stenosis (narrowing of the canal where the spinal cord passes through) and even chronic back pain. Up to 80 percent of adults in the United States struggle with neck or back pain caused by these conditions and disorders.

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Dementia is the term used to describe the decline in neurological functioning which causes difficulties in daily life. It is an increasingly common phenomenon in our ageing population, and is often extremely distressing for both the patient and their family and carers. Whilst the most common dementia diagnosis is Alzheimer’s disease, similar deterioration in mental functioning can be caused by a wide-range of other problems. Differentiating between specific causes of dementia can be challenging, and this lack of knowledge can make it very difficult to plan effective support and treatment.

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