High Blood Pressure

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High Blood Pressure
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Specialty scores for High Blood Pressure

Overview

About 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, or hypertension, but many don't realize it. High blood pressure usually has no warning signs, yet it can lead to life-threatening conditions like heart attack or stroke. The good news is that you can often prevent or treat high blood pressure. Early diagnosis and simple, healthy changes can keep high blood pressure from seriously damaging your health.

What is blood pressure?

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number.

How do I know if my blood pressure is high?

High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. So the only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. Your provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most adults, blood pressure readings will be in one of four categories:

Normal blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is less than 120 AND
  • Your diastolic pressure is less than 80

Prehypertension means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 120-139 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 80-89

Stage 1 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is between 140-159 OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is between 90-99

Stage 2 high blood pressure means

  • Your systolic pressure is 160 or higher OR
  • Your diastolic pressure is 100 or higher

For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and gender.

People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Why do I need to worry about prehypertension and high blood pressure?

Prehypertension means you're likely to end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it.

When your blood pressure stays high over time, it causes the heart to pump harder and work overtime, possibly leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure.

What are the different types of high blood pressure?

There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure.

  • Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older.
  • Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat the cause or stop taking the medicines that are causing it.

Who is at risk for high blood pressure?

Anyone can develop high blood pressure, but there are certain factors which can increase your risk:

  • Age - Blood pressure tends to rise with age
  • Race/Ethnicity - High blood pressure is more common in African American adults
  • Weight - People who are overweight or obese are more likely to develop prehypertension or high blood pressure
  • Gender - Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, women are more likely than men to develop it.
  • Lifestyle - Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, such as eating too much sodium or not enough potassium, lack of exercise, drinking too much alcohol, and smoking.
  • Family history - A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of developing prehypertension or high blood pressure

How can I prevent high blood pressure?

You can help prevent high blood pressure by having a healthy lifestyle. This means

  • Eating a healthy diet. To help manage your blood pressure, you should limit the amount of sodium (salt) that you eat, and increase the amount of potassium in your diet. It is also important to eat foods that are lower in fat, as well as plenty of fresh fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. The DASH diet is an example of an eating plan that can help you to lower your blood pressure.
  • Getting regular exercise. Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower your blood pressure. You should try to get moderate-intensity aerobic exercise at least 2 and a half hours per week, or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise for 1 hour and 15 minutes per week. Aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, is any exercise in which your heart beats harder and you use more oxygen than usual.
  • Being at a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese increases your risk for high blood pressure. Maintaining a healthy weight can help you control high blood pressure and reduce your risk for other health problems.
  • Limiting alcohol. Drinking too much alcohol can raise your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which may cause weight gain. Men should have no more than 2 drinks per day, and women only 1.
  • Not smoking. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you at higher risk for heart attack and stroke. If you do not smoke, do not start. If you do smoke, talk to your health care provider for help in finding the best way for you to quit.
  • Managing Stress. Learning how to relax and manage stress can improve your emotional and physical health and lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include exercising, listening to music, focusing on something calm or peaceful, and meditating.

If you already have high blood pressure, it is important to prevent it from getting worse or causing complications. You should get regular medical care and follow your prescribed treatment plan. Your plan will include healthy lifestyle habit recommendations and possibly medicines.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

FDA Approved Medicines

  • FDA approved eplerenone tablets, sold as Inspra, manufactured by Pharmacia & Upjohn as oral tablets for the treatment of high blood pressure. ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2002.
  • FDA approved eprosartan mesylate plus hydrochlorothiazide, sold as Teveten, manufactured by Unimed Pharmaceuticals as tablets for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2001.
  • FDA approved candesartan cilexetil, sold as Atacand, manufactured by AstraZeneca for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2000.
  • FDA approved aliskiren, sold as Tekturna, manufactured by Novartis for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2007.
  • FDA approved aliskiren + amlodipine, sold as Tekamlo, manufactured by Novartis for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2010.
  • FDA approved azilsartan medoxomil, sold as Edarbi, manufactured by Takeda for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2011.
  • FDA approved amlodipine besylate, olmesartan medoxomil, sold as Azor, manufactured by Daiichi Sankyo for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2006.
  • FDA approved azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone, sold as Edarbyclor, manufactured by Takeda for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2011.
  • FDA approved trandolapril, sold as Mavik, manufactured by Knoll Pharmaceutical for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1996.
  • FDA approved valsartan, sold as Diovan, manufactured by Ciba Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1997.
  • FDA approved valsartan, sold as Diovan HCT, manufactured by Novartis for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1998.
  • FDA approved telmisartan, sold as Micardis, manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1998.
  • FDA approved diltiazem hydrochloride, sold as Tiazac, manufactured by Forest Laboratories for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1996.
  • FDA approved enalapril maleate/diltiazem malate, sold as Teczem, manufactured by Hoechst Marion Roussel for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1996.
  • FDA approved perindopril arginine and amlodipine besylate, sold as Prestalia, manufactured by Symplmed Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2015.
  • FDA approved verapamil, sold as Covera-HS, manufactured by GD Searle, Alza for the treatment of hypertension and angina ( Angina Pectoris | High Blood Pressure ) in year 1995.
  • FDA approved clevidipine, sold as Cleviprex, manufactured by The Medicines Company for the treatment of hypertension when oral therapy is not feasible or not desirable ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2007.
  • FDA approved metoprolol succinate, sold as Toprol-XL, manufactured by AstraZeneca for the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris and heart failure ( Angina Pectoris | Heart Failure | High Blood Pressure ) in year 1995.
  • FDA approved amlodipine/atorvastatin, sold as Caduet, manufactured by Pfizer for the treatment of hypertension, chronic stable angina and vasospastic angina ( High Blood Pressure | Prinzmetal Angina | Stable Angina ) in year 2003.
  • FDA approved enalapril maleate-felodipine ER, sold as Lexxel, manufactured by Astra Merck for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1997.
  • FDA approved Lisinopril, sold as Prinivil or Zestril, manufactured by Merck, Zeneca for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction ( Heart Failure | High Blood Pressure | Myocardial Infarction ) in year 1995.
  • FDA approved telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide, sold as Micardis HCT, manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2000.
  • FDA approved olmesartan medoxomil + amlodipine + hydrochlorothiazide, sold as Tribenzor, manufactured by Daiichi Sankyo for the treatment of hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2010.
  • FDA approved hydrochlorothiazide, sold as Microzide, manufactured by Watson Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of mild-to moderate hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 1997.
  • FDA approved aliskiren + amlodipine + hydrochlorothiazide, sold as Amturnide, manufactured by Novartis for the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension ( High Blood Pressure ) in year 2009.