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Specialty scores for Osteoporosis


Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by fragile bones that are easily prone to fracture. As we age, the bones tend to become less dense. When this process occurs at a faster rate, osteoporosis ensues. This condition is more common in women, who frequently develop it at a younger age. Men have a greater bone mass and therefore take longer to develop osteoporosis.

Risk factors

Other than advanced age and gender, some of the important risk factors for osteoporosis are as follows:


  • Postmenopausal: After menopause, the bone density decreases further.
  • The lack of estrogen accounts for this loss of bone mineral density*.
  • Positive family history of osteoporosis or early fractures.
  • PA short stature.


  • Anorexia nervosa (due to the deficiency of estrogen)*
  • Celiac disease.
  • Renal osteodystrophy in chronic renal failure: The low levels of vitamin D and reduced mineralization of bones
  • Hypogonadism: Decreased sex hormones.
  • Hypercortisolism: Accelerates the breakdown of bone
  • Cigarette smoking: Inhibits the action of bone-producing cells, called osteoblasts.
  • Renal osteodystrophy in chronic renal failure: The low levels of vitamin D and reduced mineralization of bones
  • Chronic alcoholism
  • Medications like heparin, glucocorticoids, L-thyroxine, and proton pump inhibitors
  • Excessive consumption of soft drinks

*The hormone estrogen stimulates the formation of osteoblasts.

Signs and Symptoms of Osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is mostly a silent condition until it is complicated by fractures—fractures that occur following minimal trauma or, in some instances, with no trauma. Vertebral fractures are the commonest fractures encountered. A fractured or collapsed vertebra causes back pain. Some patients will experience a loss of height over time and a stooped posture.

Diagnostic assessment

Bone mineral density (BMD) should be assessed in people with the aforementioned risk factors. The most widely accepted method of measuring BMD is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A BMD of less than or equal to 2.5 standard deviations below that of a young is diagnostic of osteoporosis. This is referred to as a T-score.


Treatments for osteoporosis are as follows:

  • Weight-bearing exercises (these add tension in the muscles that in turn exerts more pressure on your bones, which then respond by generating new bone)
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements
  • Prescription medications such as:
    • Bisphosphonates like risedronate, alendronate, and zoledronic acid
    • Estrogen therapy
    • Calcitonin
    • Denosumab (antibody therapy)
    • Raloxifene
    • Teriparatide

FDA Approved Medicines

  • FDA approved Estradiol/Norethindrone Acetate, sold as Activella, manufactured by Novo Nordisk as combination hormone replacement therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other symptoms associated w/postmenopause ( Osteoporosis ) in year 2000.
  • FDA approved ibandronate, sold as Boniva, manufactured by Roche / GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis ( Osteoporosis ) in year 2005.
  • FDA approved alendronate sodium, sold as Fosamax, manufactured by Merck for the treatment of osteoporosis in women after menopause and Paget's Disease of Bone ( Paget's Disease of Bone | Osteoporosis ) in year 1995.
  • FDA approved teriparatide, sold as Forteo, manufactured by Eli Lilly for the treatment of Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men who are at high risk for a fracture. ( Bone Fracture | Osteoporosis ) in year 2002.
  • FDA approved denosumab, sold as Prolia, manufactured by Amgen for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture ( Bone Fracture | Osteoporosis ) in year 2010.
  • FDA approved raloxifene hydrochloride, sold as Evista, manufactured by Eli Lilly for the treatment of the prevention of osteoporosis ( Osteoporosis ) in year 1997.